Greetings, fellow researchers!
This is the IAES’s Nawala from the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science. Today we will share about blockchain and the role of blockchain on the internet of things (IoT). Blockchain is a technology used to secure online transactions by creating distributed and decentralized records on several computers. Assiri and Khan conducted research related to the blockchain (specifically regarding the tendermint blockchain algorithm), which in more detail can be seen in the following article:
Fair and trustworthy: Lock-free enhanced tendermint blockchain algorithm
Basem Assiri, Wazir Zada KhanBlockchain Technology is exclusively used to make online transactions secure by maintaining a distributed and decentralized ledger of records across multiple computers. Tendermint is a general-purpose blockchain engine that is composed of two parts; Tendermint Core and the blockchain application interface. The application interface makes Tendermint suitable for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we analyze and improve Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerant (PBFT), a consensus-based Tendermint blockchain algorithm. In order to avoid negative issues of locks, we first propose a lock-free algorithm for blockchain in which the proposal and voting phases are concurrent whereas the commit phase is sequential. This consideration in the algorithm allows parallelism. Secondly, a new methodology is used to decide the size of the voter set which is a subset of blockchain nodes, further investigating the block sensitivity and trustworthiness of nodes. Thirdly, to fairly select the voter set nodes, we employ the random walk algorithm. Fourthly, we imply the wait-freedom property by using a timeout due to which all blocks are eventually committed or aborted. In addition, we have discussed voting conflicts and consensuses issues that are used as a correctness property, and provide some supportive techniques.
Based on the previous article, it can be concluded that blockchain has mechanisms that make blockchain secure. Ramanath et al. utilize blockchain technology to become security agents in transacting breast cancer diagnosis data. Therefore, only trusted entities get the data. The completed article can be read on the following page:
Blockchain integrated multi-agent system for breast cancer diagnosis
Thirumalaimuthu Thirumalaiappan Ramanath, Md. Jakir Hossen, Md. Shohel SayeedThe integration of multi-agent system and blockchain technology can be beneficial to healthcare applications by providing intelligent data analysis with security. This paper presents an architecture that integrates multi-agent learning system and blockchain technology to support breast cancer diagnosis in a secured manner. The proposed system is based on a parallel hybrid fuzzy logic approach for supporting the prediction of breast cancer disease. The proposed system showed a classification accuracy of 96.49% in breast cancer diagnosis when testing with the Wisconsin Diagnostic Breast Cancer dataset. The blockchain is used to provide agent security in the proposed system to ensure that the only trusted and reputed agents are participated in the decision-making process.
Not limited to diagnostic data, Murugan et al. improvise on increasing the availability of Electronic Health Records (EHR). HER is sensitive data that needs to be kept confidential. Researchers use blockchain technology on the Health Information Exchange (HIE) to increase the security of patient medical data sent by doctors. That way, the patient’s EHR will still be conveyed safely. More complete articles can be accessed via:
Healthcare information exchange using blockchain technology
A. Murugan, Tushar Chechare, B. Muruganantham, S. Ganesh KumarCurrent trend in health-care industry is to shift its data on the cloud, to increase availability of Electronic Health Records (EHR) e.g. Patient’s medical history in real time, which will allow sharing of EHR with ease. However, this conventional cloud-based data sharing environment has data security and privacy issues. This paper proposes a distributed solution based on blockchain technology for trusted Health Information Exchange (HIE). In addition to exchange of EHR between patient and doctor, the proposed system is also used in other aspects of healthcare such as improving the insurance claim and making data available for research organizations. Medical data is very sensitive, in both social as well as legal aspects, so permissioned block-chain such as Hyperledger Fabric is used to retain the necessary privacy required in the proposed system. As, this is highly permissioned network where the owner of the network i.e. patient holds all the access rights, so in case of emergency situations the proposed system has a Backup Access System which will allow healthcare professionals to access partial EHR and this backup access is provided by using wearable IOT device.
Blockchain technology is starting to get into IoT technology. Research by Al-Shabi and Al-Qarafi discusses the challenges and solutions of implementing blockchain technology in IoT. At the end of the word, they stated that this article discusses issues that have not been discussed and prospects for blockchain-IoT technology. For more details, read the following article:
Improving blockchain security for the internet of things: challenges and solutions
Mohammed Al-Shabi, Abdulrahman Al-QarafiDue to its uniquely suited to the knowledge era, the blockchain technology has currently become highly appealing to the next generation. In addition, such technology has been recently extended to the internet of things (IoT). In essence, the blockchain concept necessitates the use of a decentralized data operation system to store as well as to distribute data and the transactions across the net. Therefore, this study examines the specific concept of the blockchain as a decentralized data management system in the face of probable protection threats. Furthermore, it discusses the present solutions that can be used to counteract those attacks. The blockchain security enhancement solutions are included in this study by summarizing the key points of these solutions. Several blockchain systems and safety devices that register security defenselessness can be developed using such key points. At last, this paper discusses the pending matters and the outlook research paths of blockchain-IoT systems.
A smart contract is a mechanism on the blockchain that runs when predetermined conditions are met. Ganesh Kumar et al. implemented a smart contract on IoT devices. In their research, they propose to use blockchain technology as a medium for exchanging data on IoT devices. More details regarding implementation can be seen in the following articles:
IoT–smart contracts in data trusted exchange supplied chain based on block chain
S. Ganesh Kumar, A. Murugan, B. Muruganantham, B. SrimanInternet of Things (IoT) assumes a critical part in the advancement of different fields. The IoT data trusted exchange in recent year extend of uses influence an awesome request and increasing scale. In such a platform, exchange the data sets that they require and specialist organization can search. However, the enough trust as the third-party mediators for data exchange in centralized infrastructure cannot provide. This paper proposes a blockchain for IoT data trusted exchange based on decentralized solution. In particular, the fundamental standards of blockchain in verify manner, individuals can communicate with each other without a confided in mediator intermediary. Blockchain enable us to have a distributed, digital ledger. IoT (Internet of Things) sensor devices (zigbee) utilizing blockchain technology to assert public availability of temperature records, tracking location shipment, humidity, preventing damage, data immutability. The sensor devices looking the temperature, location, damage of each parcel during the shipment to completely guarantee directions. In blockchain all data is got moved from one position to another, where a smart contract assesses against the product attributes. Ethereum blockchain and smart contracts atlast it gets through knowledge a design to be copied and presents its decentralized distributed digital ledger, auditable, transparent, features visually.
The application of blockchain in IoT, of course, has its pros and cons. Alam, in his research, evaluates the performance of the IoT that has been implemented by blockchain. Evaluation results and a more detailed explanation can be seen in the following article:
Performance evaluation of blockchains in the internet of things
Tanweer AlamThe idea of blockchains technology (BT) in the internet of things (IoT) is to allow the physical things to trust in the transactions held within the IoT network. The BT is a distributed, decentralized, publicly shared its digital ledger and secured technology to eternally record the transactions across the shared database. The BT in IoT can be called Trust Machine to eliminate the intermediates and enables the physical things to trust with each other. This research evaluates the performance of BT in IoT. The simulated results are tested and can be used in the sustainable development of the integration of BT and IoT.
Some of the articles above are just a few of the many collaborations between blockchain technology and IoT. To get more information, you can access it for FREE at: http://telkomnika.uad.ac.id/, https://ijece.iaescore.com/, https://ijeecs.iaescore.com/, and http://iaesprime.com/index.php/csit